Transforming Small Island Power Systems
Many of the world’s Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have started to integrate renewables into their electricity supply mix. The expected benefits include reducing dependency on costly, sometimes volatile fossil-fuel imports. But local utilities must also ensure reliable supply amid the shift to variable sources, such as solar and wind energy. This guide from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) can assist in decision making and help to carry out successful technical planning studies on solar and wind integration into SIDS power systems.
Energy Master Plans for the Federated States of Micronesia
This report presents the Energy Master Plans for each of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), and for the nation. The Master Plans have been developed during the period of unprecedented technological change. The last few years have seen remarkable and disruptive improvements in renewable energy (RE) technologies and battery storage. Further expected reductions in the costs of these technologies provide FSM with an opportunity to combine achievement of its environmental targets with ensuring that electricity production remains affordable.
At the same time, FSM faces a significant challenge of delivering electricity to people living on outer islands. At present, there is significant social and economic divide: people living on the four main islands enjoy almost universal access to the main electricity grids. By contrast, people on outer islands and in outlying communities have almost no access to electricity. The Master Plans are designed to address this divide in a financially and socially sustainable way.
Navigating our Energy Future: Marshall Islands Electricity Roadmap
The Roadmap provides a strategic framework for the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) electricity sector, to enable the country to meet its climate change targets and to strengthen its role as a climate leader. It allows the RMI and its development partners to work together to achieve a common vision for the RMI electricity sector.
This Roadmap imagines the RMI electricity sector’s decarbonization journey, as the country progress toward targets set for 2025, 2030 and 2050. It covers technology pathways, human resource strategies, enabling policies, and financing and implementation arrangements.
Kiribati Integrated Energy Roadmap 2017-2025
In 2015, the Government of Kiribati asked the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and Pacific regional organisations to help it develop a comprehensive energy roadmap, including potential to scale up renewables and energy efficiency, in the years until 2025. The resulting Kiribati Integrated Energy Roadmap (KIER) highlights key challenges and presents solutions to make Kiribati’s entire energy sector cleaner and more cost effective.
National Energy Roadmaps for Islands
Islands around the world face crucial energy challenges, including fuel import dependency, high electricity costs, environmental sensitivity and vulnerability to climate change. The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) co-operates closely with island countries to accelerate their shift to renewables and help ensure a sustainable energy future.
SIDS Lighthouses quickscan: Interim report
The quickscan is a tool to help Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in their transition to renewable energy. Developed by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) as part of the SIDS Lighthouses Initiative, quickscans help to assess deployment conditions, monitor progress and identify areas where targeted assistance could accelerate the transition to renewables.
A Path to Prosperity: Renewable Energy for Islands, 3rd Edition
A Path to Prosperity highlights the role of islands in global efforts against climate change. The third edition of this compilation from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) marks the occasion of the United Nations climate conference, COP22, in November 2016.
A path to prosperity: Renewable energy for islands
A Path to Prosperity: Renewable Energy for Islands presents a compilation of case studies from small island developing states (SIDS) and development partners. These demonstrate real-life project viability, highlight innovative solutions and showcase successful partnerships, which together are advancing the deployment of renewable energy in SIDS.
Renewable Desalination Technology Options for Islands
Many islands face shortages of fresh water. Desalination using renewable energy can meet their water needs at reduced costs, this report finds.
Renewable Energy Roadmap for the Republic of Cyprus
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Renewables Readiness Assessment: Republic of the Marshall Islands
The Republic of the Marshall Islands relies on imported petroleum products for 90% of its primary energy supply. But the Pacific small-island developing state has set out to increase the share of renewables in its energy mix and achieve 100% electrification by 2020. The envisaged energy transformation requires greater use of off-grid solar power.
Wind Resource Measurement: Guidelines for Islands
Renewable energy technologies, including wind power, can help even the most remote islands achieve energy security and sustainability, while cutting fuel import costs. This extensive study from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) provides guidelines for islands to conduct detailed resource measurements, in order to ensure optimal siting of wind turbines for power generation.
SREP Investment Plan of The Government of Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands has considerable renewable energy potential. This is document is a summary of potential resources of hydro power, solar PV, biomass gasification, biomass direct combustion, coconut oil, biodiesel and wind.
Nauru Energy Road Map 2014 – 2020
The Nauru Energy Road Map 2014 – 2020 builds upon the energy sector development agenda laid out in the National Sustainable Development Strategy 2005 -2025 (revised 2009) and the National Energy Policy Framework (NEPF) of 2009.The targets of the Energy Road Map by 2020 are: 1. 24/7 grid electricity supply with minimal interruptions 2. 50% of grid electricity supplied from renewable energy sources 3. 30% improvement in energy efficiency in the residential, commercial and government sectors
Renewable Energy Opportunities for Island Tourism
Tourism is an important economic driver for island economies. Energy supply, vital for the tourism industry, is still dominated by oil products which increases islands’ vulnerability to the environmental impact of fossil-fuel use, as well as to oil price volatility, which makes it difficult for the industry to remain competitive.
Renewable islands: Settings for success
Islands around the world rely on costly fossil-fuel imports, often from distant locations, which can burden government budgets and inhibit investment in social and economic development. A transition to indigenous renewable energy, however, can reduce import dependence and create important business and employment opportunities.
Pacific Lighthouses: Renewable Energy Roadmapping for Islands
Pacific islands are endowed with a rich variety of renewable energy resources, providing a viable and attractive alternative to fossil-fuel imports. IRENA’s multi-faceted work across the region is reflected in Pacific Lighthouses: Renewable Energy Roadmapping for Islands. The main report, intended to provide a framework for further action, is accompanied by 15 reports on specific islands, as well as a report detailing hybrid power systems for the Pacific.
SMART GROWTH PATHWAYS: Building a Green Platform for Sustainable Aruba
The Smart Growth Pathways publication provides an initial view of the roadmap to sustainability for Aruba through a focus on low-carbon pathways as the keystone to sustainability and economic growth. While the document focuses more on the opportunity to transform the energy sector from one that depends on fossil fuels to one that is fundamentally renewable, there is also consideration of the many sectors that rely on this energy system to create their livelihoods, and the livelihoods of others, on the island. We believe that while transformation of the energy sector is a near-term commercially viable opportunity, all stakeholders in all sectors should have a say in the outcome, as the result will have such widespread effects.
Guam Energy Action Plan
This document describes the four near-term strategies selected by the Guam Energy Task Force during action planning workshops conducted in March 2013, and outlines the steps being taken to implement those strategies. Each strategy addresses one of the energy sectors identified in the Guam strategic energy plan as being an essential component of diversifying Guam's fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption 20% by 2020
Caribbean Sustainable Energy Roadmap (C-SERMS), Phase 1 Summary and Recommendations for Policymakers
The “Caribbean Sustainable Energy Roadmap (C-SERMS), Phase 1 Summary and Recommendations for Policymakers” was published by The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) in June 2013 with support from The Worldwatch Institute and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). Phase 1 of this regional roadmap provides an overview of the region’s current energy situation, recommends regional targets for renewable power capacity, energy efficiency, and carbon emissions reductions in the short-term (2017), medium-term (2022), and long-term (2027), and outlines key strategies for achieving those goals. The 15 CARICOM countries covered are: Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago. For each country the report gives a RE resource assessment, overview of national RE planning, targets and support policies and the institutional and governance structure of the energy sector.
Jamaica Sustainable Energy Roadmap
The Jamaica Sustainable Energy Roadmap was published in October 2013 by the Worldwatch Institute. This roadmap focuses on the deployment of RE for electricity generation and indicates that, in order of importance, PV, wind, small hydro, biomass and waste to energy are the key technologies for achieving a RE transition. Currently 15% of Jamaica’s GDP is spent on oil imports. Oil supplies over 95% of electricity generation with small contributions from Hydro (3.3%) and wind (1.4%), this results in high electricity tariffs averaging 40 U.S. cents / kWh. Jamaica has established a National Energy Policy aiming to meet 30% of the island’s energy needs with RE by 2030. This analysis show that Jamaica can supply 90% of its electricity demand with RE by 2030 by investing less than USD 6 billion, compared to over USD 2 billion spent on oil imports in 2011. These models show that a 90% RE deployment would decrease electricity generation costs by 67% saving up to USD 12.5 billion by 2030 and creating up to 4,000 new jobs. The roadmap identifies key institutional and regulatory barriers to RE deployment and provides specific policy recommendation to overcome these obstacles.
Vanuatu National Energy Road Map
The “Vanuatu National Energy Road Map 2013-2020” was published in March 2013 by the Government of Vanuatu. The roadmap gives an overview of the energy sector, highlights key barriers to expanding energy access and RE deployment and details policy and technical solutions to these barriers. Several targets for improving Vanuatu’s energy sector are identified: 1) Access to secure, reliable and affordable electricity for all Citizens by 2030 (currently only 27% have access); 2) Reduce the cost of distributing all petroleum products in Vanuatu by 5% in 2015 and 10% in 2020; 3) 10% improvement in diesel generator efficiency by 2015 and 20% by 2020; 4) 40% RE generation by 2015 and 65% by 2020. The financing requirements for implementing the 2013-2020 roadmaps goals is estimated at a US$ 230.9 million and includes a detailed cost breakdown covering both capital investments and soft costs (i.e. capacity building, policy analysis, etc…). Detailed data is given in proposed geothermal, PV, hydro, bio-diesel and grid extension projects.
Electricity Storage and Renewables for Island Power: A Guide for Decision Makers
A practical guide for decision-makers and project developers on the available energy storage solutions and their successful applications in the context of islands communities. The report also includes various best practice cases and different scenarios and strategies. It is developed as part of the IRENA Renewables in Islands Initiative (IRII).
Policy Challenges for Renewable Energy Deployment in Pacific Island Countries and Territories
This report addresses the specific conditions for policy making on renewables in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) across the Pacific region and proposes measures to support successful implementation. The report identifies the existing challenges and opportunities and will offers recommendations to policy makers for the design and implementation of successful renewable energy policies.
Renewable Energy Country Profiles - Special edition on islands
This special collection of country profiles takes stock of the latest developments in renewables in island settings around the world. Each profile provides a brief overview of energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and energy access. The investment climate, targets, major projects and resource potential are also considered.
Samoa Energy Sector Plan 2012-2016
Samoa Energy Action Plan examines a path for expansion of renewables in the country’s power sector through the year 2016. Options considered include solar power, wind power, small hydro and biomass. The report sets forth goals to increase 8 percent in renewable energy supply by 2016. It then evaluates which renewable options should have highest priority and examines policies and regulations to overcome identified barriers to deployment of these options.
Maldives SREP Investment Plan 2013 - 2017
The SREP Investment Plan in Maldives examines a path for expansion of renewables in Maldives’ power sector from the year 2013-2017. Options considered include solar power, wind power, biogas, biomass, ocean technology and waste to energy. The report starts out with Maldives’s goals of increasing the share of renewable electricity up to 30% of total generation in about 30 islands. Then it moves on to different technology options in the island context and evaluates which ones should have highest priority. Policy and regulations are also examined to overcome the identified barriers.
Cook Islands Renewable Energy Chart Implementation Plan - Island Specific
The “Cook Islands Renewable Energy Chart Implementation Plan: Island Specific” was published in April 2012 by the Renewable Energy Development Division, Office of the Prime Minister of the Cook Islands. It serves as a supporting document detailing the processes, time-lines, RE technologies and costs required to implement the Cook Islands RE roadmap. The key players in the RE transition planning are identified and a specific international tender process to support the deployment of RE projects is outlined. For each of the 12 inhabited islands the implementation plan details the current electricity generation system, electricity demand and tariff structure and gives the RE technologies, project time-line, costs and where identified, the funding agency for the proposed 100% RE electricity system. The document includes charts on the full RE transition time-line, detailed project cost breakdowns and levelized generation costs of RE technologies.
Dominican Republic Roadmap to a Sustainable Energy System
This roadmap focuses on the integration of wind and solar resources on the power electric power grid. It finds strong solar potential with average global horizontal irradiance of 210 to 250 watts per square meter. It also finds strong wind resources, with 78 sites that could operate at a capacity factor of 30 percent or more. Socioeconomic impacts of renewable power are addressed, as well as regulatory, policy and financial issues and options for market reform. Decentralized renewable electricity generation is viewed as attractive in view of high losses on the grid and high costs of diesel generation.
Bermuda Energy White Paper: A National Energy Transition
The “Bermuda Energy White Paper: A National Energy Transition” was published in July 2011 by the Bermuda Department of Energy. This national roadmap covers all energy consuming sectors and sets 2020 goals of 1) reducing greenhouse gas emissions below 10 metric tonnes CO2 equivalent per capita, 2) energy efficiency measures reducing electrical energy consumption 20% compared to 2008, 3) 30% of electricity generated by renewables with priority given to offshore wind, PV, ocean energy and small scale onshore wind. It aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transportation by 30%. The document also sets a 2030 goal of reducing CO2 emissions by 56% compared to 2008. The roadmap details a number of policy and legislative steps that need to be taken in support of the 2020 with specific recommendations given for: capacity planning, electricity delivery and metering, electrical energy generation, product efficiency, energy in buildings, transportation, legislation and regulation. Examples include a legal obligation for the mandatory purchase of low-emission energy, Feed-in-rates, interconnection standards and certification for IPPs and government allocation of public land and seabed for RE projects.
Sustainable Energy Framework for Barbados
The Inter-American Bank (IDB) hired Castalia and Stantec to help the Government of Barbados (the Government) prepare a ‘Sustainable Energy Framework for Barbados’ (SEF). This Final Report presents: The objectives of the Sustainable Energy Framework—the SEF should unlock viable investments in renewables and energy efficiency to reduce energy costs, improve energy security, and enhance environmental sustainability ?? Barbados’ Sustainable Energy Matrix—electricity generation in Barbados could include more renewable energy technologies, and consumption of electricity could be lower thanks to energy efficiency technologies, because most of these technologies are economically viable and could reduce energy costs. However, there are barriers that block these technologies, and that make the potentially ‘sustainable’ matrix different from the ‘current’ one.
St. Vincent and the Grenadines: Energy Action Plan for St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Energy Action Plan in St. Vincent and the Grenadines examines a path for expansion of renewables in the country’s power sector through the year 2020. Options considered include solar power, wind power, geothermal and biomass. The report sets forth goals to reach 30 percent renewable energy electricity generation by 2015 and 60 percent by 2020. It then evaluates which renewable options should have highest priority and examines policies and regulations to overcome identified barriers to deployment of these options.
Tonga Energy Road Map 2010 ‐ 2020
Tonga Energy Road Map (TERM) examines a path for expansion of renewables in Tonga’s power sector from the year 2010 to 2020. Options considered include solar power, wind power and biomass. The report starts out with an overview of Tonga’s energy sector, moves on to evaluate which renewable technology options should have the highest priority, and examines policy and regulatory reforms to overcome barriers to renewable power deployment. It finds that landfill gas and wind may be the least-cost options for electricity generation, provided the resources are proven. It also finds that solar photovoltaic power is the option with the best resource data on which to base investment. Further, it urges that renewable investment build on an aggressive program of energy efficiency improvement. It notes that private sector participation in financing will be needed to amass the investment required.
Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) National Energy Policy and Energy Action Plan
The “Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) National Energy Policy and Energy Action Plan” was published in September 2009 with support from the EU’s European Development Fund. The top level goals of the roadmap are: 1) Electrification of 100% of all urban households and 95% of rural outer atoll households by 2015; 2) The provision of 20% of energy through indigenous renewable resources by 2020; 2) Improved efficiency of energy use in 50% of households and businesses, and 75% of government buildings by 2020; and 3) Reduce the national utility’s (MEC) supply side energy losses by 20% by 2015. Currently RMI is dependent on oil imports for ~90% of its energy needs. Within the next 5-10 years, it is likely that only PV and possibly coconut-based biofuel may be technically, economically and financially practical for the RMI. RMI has achieved some success on the deployment of small scale PVs systems for rural electrification (1500 systems in 2010) however there is serious concern about the lack of funding for long term O&M. The roadmap highlights specific strategies for overcoming the challenges in energy policy administration and implementation, petroleum and liquid fuels, electric power, transport and energy use, energy efficiency and finally renewable energy.
Republic of Mauritius Long-Term Energy Strategy 2009 – 2025
Republic of Mauritius Long-Term Energy Strategy in Mauritius examines a path for expansion of renewables in Mauritius’s power sector from the year 2009-2025. Options considered include solar power, wind power, bagasse, and hydro power. The report starts out with Mauritius’ goals of 35% renewable energy by 2025. Then it moves on to different technology options in the island context and evaluates which ones should have highest priority. Policy and regulations are also examined to overcome the identified barriers. An action plan is detailed at the end.
NIUE NATIONAL ENERGY ACTION PLAN
The National Energy Policy states briefly and precisely the Government's policies for the planning and management of the nation's energy sector over the next 10-15 years. It provides explicit frameworks within which public and private energy sector participants can make informed planning and investment decisions and manage their operations for the long term. These policies also define the nature and extent of Government's control and management of the energy sector. The purpose of the NEAP is to restate Niue's energy policies in conjunction with a more detailed action program and guidelines that will provide the blueprint for Government's in planning and management of energy programmes over the life of the policy statement.
SIDS Lighthouses Initiative is supported and coordinated by the International Renewable Energy Agency.
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